Jordan Journal of Applied Science - Natural Science Series Applied Science Private University en-US Jordan Journal of Applied Science - Natural Science Series 1605-2587 Predicting rainfall amounts in Nablus city using time series <p><strong>Background:</strong> This research aims to predict the rainfall of the City of Nablus, Palestine, in the years to come to assist in managing water resources in an area where rainfall quantities vary yearly. Box-Jenkins model is used in analyzing the time series, characterized by high prediction accuracy.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study is based on rainfall data (from the Palestinian Meteorological Department) of the city of Nablus over 51 years, i.e., from 1970 to 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It is clear from the study that the best rainwater forecasting model is ARIMA (0,07) because the data from this series are consistent over time. The model gave good predictions that are close to the actual values. However, the results indicated that quantities in the coming years will fluctuate. The fluctuation is consistent with the Mediterranean climate, which suffers from climate changes and variations in rainfall levels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study recommends using Box and Jenkins models in time series to predict hydrological phenomena. The study recommends using Box and Jenkins models in time series to predict hydrological phenomena.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nablus, Palestine, Prediction, ARIMA Models, Dickey – Fuller Test.</p> Israa Naem Hasan Hassan Abu Hassan Hussein Al-Rimmawi Copyright (c) 2023 Applied Scince Private University 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 15 1 1 7 10.35192/jjoas-n.v15i1.795 Preparation of Nano Magnesium Oxide Loaded with Syrian Inula Plant Extract And Study of antibacterial activity Against Vibrio cholera <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>Nanotechnology is considered one of the best advanced technologies in treatment through its ability to transport effective drugs and compounds and release them more effectively. MgO nanoparticles showed antimicrobial properties against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in vitro, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as <em>Vibrio cholera </em>bacteria was selected during the period when the epidemic began to appear in Syria, with the presence of several people showing symptoms of diarrhea in the city of Aleppo.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In this research, Nano magnesium oxide particles were prepared by sol-gel method, then the active compounds were extracted from the Syrian Inula plant using ethanol as a solvent. next step was load the plant extract on the surface of the prepared magnesium oxide particles. The antibacterial activity of the new product was studied against the bacteria that cause cholera.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Its effectiveness was compared with the effectiveness of 7 different antibiotics, and it outperformed all of them, noting that the studied isolate was resistant to three of them.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The combination of nanoparticles with the natural extract is more effective in fighting bacteria, because each of them works in a different way and affects differently, so the combination of the two technologies gives greater effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Inula, Nanomagnesium oxide, <em>Vibrio cholera.</em></p> Abdulrazzaq Hammal Hiba Al-Hamed Al-Duihi Copyright (c) 2023 Applied Science Private University 2023-08-21 2023-08-21 15 1 1 3 10.35192/jjoas-n.v15i1.1072 Recalculating the sustainability criteria within the LEED system according to the Syrian construction conditions using the FAHP method <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>With the global trend to develop the construction industry and achieve the sustainability of resources, a set of systems have emerged to assess sustainable buildings, the most important of which are the Environmental Efficiency Rating System (BREEAM) in the United Kingdom, the LEED method for evaluating sustainable buildings in the United States, the Green Globes Rating System in Canada, and the ESTIDAMA Pearl Rating method. In the UAE, the Green Pyramid Rating System in the Arab Republic of Egypt and many others.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods: </strong>This study determined the main standards and their relative weights included in the American LEED system and then re-weighted according to the Syrian construction conditions using a (fuzzy analytic hierarchy process) (FAHP).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results </strong><strong>and </strong><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>The study showed that it is impossible to find a stable and effective evaluation system at every time and place due to the different construction conditions, economic situation, and priorities between one country and another, as well as the difference in climatic conditions between one region and another. Although the researchers used the same main criteria adopted in America, the results in Syria differed. This reflects the local situation in the study area (Syria).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sustainable Buildings, Sustainability Assessment criteria, LEED System, Fuzzy Logic, FAHP Method.</p> Mohammed Ali Alshamali Mazen Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Applied Scince Private University 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 15 1 1 7 10.35192/jjoas-n.v15i1.330 Exploring Awareness of Health Conditions Associated with Metabolic Syndrome amongst Pharmacy Students <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> In spite of the sweeping recognition of metabolic syndrome (MeS) as an underlying cause of cardiovascular risks is increasing globally; modest research has been conducted concerning the knowledge awareness of this emerging problem among pharmacy students. This study aims to determine pharmacy students' level of knowledge and awareness concerning MeS and its associated cardiovascular risks.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods:</strong> A web-based survey was administered to 332 pharmacy college students from eight universities in Jordan during March 2017 and March 2018. The survey contained questions related to seven conditions associated with MeS, including diabetes, adiposity, hypertension (HTN), high serum cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), arteriosclerosis, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI). Knowledge score per question was estimated as follows: good knowledge if 81-100% of students answered the question correctly, fair and poor knowledge if 51-80% and ≤50% of students responded to the question correctly, respectively. Poisson regression model was used regressing total knowledge score on study parameters.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, pharmacy students' results showed they were most acquainted with knowledge about stroke, as the interpreted average percentage of correct answers was 65.8%. Students were least acquainted with MI, as students only responded to 35.1% of the enquired questions correctly. A pattern of a significant gap in knowledge regarding HTN and MI emerged since a good level of knowledge was missing for all the question topics indicated for those two conditions. Gender (being a female), student's cumulative grade point average (GPA) and the year in college (one to five years) were positively associated with more knowledge.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The outcomes of this study suggest that MeS awareness among pharmacy students is weak in many important aspects. This study may have implications that can be successfully harnessed in pharmacy education modalities in the academic sphere.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Metabolic Syndrome,&nbsp;Pharmacy Students, Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Majdoleen Aqel Prof. Iman Basheti Copyright (c) 2023 Applied Scince Private University 2023-07-17 2023-07-17 15 1 1 10 10.35192/jjoas-n.v15i1.459 Correlation of High Serum Leptin Levels with selected stress-associated salivary hormones in Arab Healthy Young Men <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Allostatic load is accompanying the youth’s modern lifestyle. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of stress markers such as salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) hormone levels in Arab young men with high levels of leptin.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;118 males aged 18–26 years, were eligible to participate in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Participants were categorized into two groups: moderate levels of serum leptin (&lt;7 ng/ml) and high levels of leptin levels (≥7 ng/ml). Serum leptin, salivary cortisol and DHEA, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose were assayed for each participant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;A significant decrease in the mean levels of morning salivary- DHEA was observed in high levels of leptin compared to moderate levels of serum leptin study group (<em>p&lt;</em>0.0001). A significant increase was also observed in mean values of body weight and body-mass index. A positive correlation was observed between morning salivary- DHEA and serum-leptin levels in all subjects (<em>p</em>=0.003). Pearson correlation showed significant correlations between morning salivary- DHEA, body weight, body mass index, and triglyceride.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;The serum leptin level was proportional to the DHEA/cortisol imbalance that was associated with allostatic load and the inability to accommodate stress in male youth.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;Leptin, cortisol, DHEA, allostatic load, obesity, BMI, Youth.&nbsp;</p> Mahmoud Abu-Samak Beisan A. Mohammad Shady H. Awwad Abeer Barham Ahmed Abu-zaiton Copyright (c) 2023 Applied Science Private University 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 15 1 1 4 10.35192/jjoas-n.v15i1.1453 Examining the Effect of Lactic-Acid-Producing Bacteria on Honey Quality and Quantity <p><strong>Background:</strong> Honeybees play a pivotal role in the sustainability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Various environmental problems have affected the most significant pollinator, honeybee. Currently, many challenges are facing the honeybee health, and lactic acid-producing bacteria, naturally found in honeybees' gut microbiota, could be used as an enhancer of honey production and quality in honeybees. This study aimed to examine the effect of using lactic acid-producing bacteria probiotics as a supplement in food for honeybees on honey quality and quantity compared to un-supplemented honeybees<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Probiotic supplements (<em>Lactobacillus Reuteri, Lactobacillus Helveticus, Lactobacillus Bulgaricus,&nbsp;Lactobacillus Acidophilus</em>, and <em>Bifidobacterium Bifidum</em>) for honeybees were prepared in three different ways (supernatant, pellet, direct feeding probiotic) with control group consuming only regular honeybee food (water with sugar). After the feeding process was done, honey samples were collected and analyzed in terms of production rate (amount), proximate analysis in terms of HMF, ash, moisture, mineral content, and antioxidant content of flavonoid and phenolic levels.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our study showed that supplementing honeybee food had an increase in honey production overall with <em>p</em>&lt; 0.0001, especially in the supernatant group with 147% rate. Phenolic content showed higher values generally and higher mineral content particularly in honeybees supplemented with a supernatant of probiotics only.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results are expected to bring a favorable influence on the honeybee's overall health and increase stress tolerance and disease resistance in the honeybee population in the future with an expected enhanced quality of honey produced that could potentially be used as a supplemented food in the form of nutraceutical to target element or component deficiencies in humans.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Honeybees, lactic acid, probiotics, honey quality, quantity</p> Muna Barakat Shaymaa B. Abdulrazzaq Ahmad Sinan Badwan Sanad Naser El-Banna Anfal Al-Dalaeen Al-Dalaeen Sawsan Abu Jamma’ah Abu Jamma’ah Mahmoud Jaber Samar Sabri Qaddoumi Mohammad A.A. Al-Najjar Copyright (c) 2023 Applied Science Private University 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 15 1 1 6 10.35192/jjoas-n.v15i1.1504 Rate and correlates of deafness in a sample of neonates in a Lebanese university hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>Neonatal deafness is a silent disability that can result in severe impairments, mostly, in a child’s linguistic and cognitive development especially if the diagnosis and treatment were delayed. If deafness is identified before the age of three months and therapies are started before the age of six months, the newborn may achieve a good cognitive and language development.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to determine the rate of deafness in high-risk infants and determine factors associated with deafness in a sample of Lebanese neonates.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This is a prospective study conducted at the University Hospital Center of Notre Dame des Secours (CHUNDS) in Jbeil, Lebanon between January 2017 and December 2019 enrolling 180 children. For multivariable analysis, a stepwise backward likelihood ratio logistic regression was performed using the presence/absence of hearing problems as the dependent variable and taking all factors that had a <em>p</em> &lt; 0.2 in the bivariate analysis as independent variables.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The rate of hearing problems (in any of the two ears) was 10% [95% CI 0.056-0.144]. Variables included in the multivariable model were able to explain 61.3% of the variations of the model (Nagelkerke R<sup>2</sup>=0.215). The results of the logistic regression showed that in-vitro fertilization (ORa=5.23) was significantly associated with higher odds of hearing problems, whereas the presence of a materno-fetal infection (ORa=0.17) was significantly associated with lower odds of hearing problems.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study was able to shed light on factors associated with hearing loss/deafness among Lebanese neonates. Since we were able to add two new risk factors to the universal list of deafness screening, it is concluded that other factors are not yet revealed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>materno-fetal infection, hearing problems, in-vitro fertilization, neonates.</p> Houria Rahal Maoula Marie Samarani Maria Iskandar Souheil Hallit Copyright (c) 2023 Applied Science Private University 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 15 1 1 4 10.35192/jjoas-n.v15i1.1319