Prevalence, awareness, and social determinants of hypertension: A cross-sectional study in Northern State, Sudan
Background: Hypertension remains a major risk factor for life-threatening conditions globally. This study was intended to determine the prevalence, awareness, and risk factors of hypertension.
Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 757 participants aged ≥18 years in rural areas of the Northern State of Sudan in 2016. Blood pressure measurements were taken. Besides, data on demographic characteristics and treatment history of hypertension were collected. Pearson’s chi-square test and logistic regression were used to identify risk factors associated with hypertension.
Results: Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension were 40.1% (95%CI: 36.6-43.7) and 41% (95%CI: 36.6-43.3), respectively. The study found older adults ≥60 years were twice (AOR=2.08; 95%CI: 1.31-3.31) more likely to have hypertension compared to younger. Males were 1.5 times (AOR=1.53; 95%CI: 1.03-2.26) more likely to have hypertension compared to females. Illiterates were more than twice (AOR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.16-4.39) more likely to have hypertension compared to educated. Participants with a positive family history of hypertension were almost twice (AOR=1.68; 95%CI: 1.23-2.29) more likely to have hypertension compared to those without a family history. The overall awareness rate of hypertension was 35.5% and significantly reduced among males, younger, not married, educated, and belonged to the Danaglah tribe (p. value <0.05). The majority (78.7%) of hypertensive patients were on treatment. However, the rate of controlled hypertension among them was low (37.7%).
Conclusion: The overall burden of hypertension is increasing with low rate of awareness and controlled hypertension. Therefore, regular screening programs and improving management are essential for reducing the burden.
Keywords: Hypertension, Prevalence, Awareness, Northern State, Sudan.